dear colleagues and friends around all the World,
Please, starting from 1 May 2002 my new job and address as
Professor Mosalam SHALTOUT,
Head and Chairman of Space Science and Renewable Energy Research
Desert Environment Research Institute,
Minufiya University, El- Sadat City, Egypt.
Tel. : + 2 ( 048 ) 603208 ; +2 ( 048 ) 602178
Fax : +2 ( 048 ) 600404
E-mail : email@example.com
http : www. m-shaltout. com / m. shaltout
Minufiya University has been established in 1976. The university
activities started with 4 units : - Faculty of Agriculture,
Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Electronic Engineering
and Faculty of Education. The number of students was 2000
students. Many Egyptian and Arab students have been graduated
from Minufiya University. Languages of instruction Minufiya
University are Arabic and English.
At the present, Minufiya University has been
enlarged to include 24 faculties, institutes, and centers.
Agriculture, Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Science,
Commerce, Education, Medicine, Home Economic, Arts, law, High
Institute of Nursing, liver Institute, Genetic Engineering
and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI), Physical Education,
Tourism and Hotels, Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Specific
Education, and Desert Environment Research Institute, and
two Faculties for Sport Education, ( one for girls and another
one for boys).
Minufiya University has now more 70.000 undergraduate
students and more than 5.000 postgraduate students.
Foreigners who are intending to study at the university
have to send their application to the General Aliens Department,
Ministry of Higher Education in Cairo. The University hostels
provide accommodation for more than 6.000 students (males
An experimental school has been attached to the Faculty
of Education as a training laboratory.
Minufiya University has more than 2000 staff members and
assistants and about 5000 technicians, administration and
Health care is provided to students, academic staff and
personnel. Minufiya university gives a deep attention to agro
- animal activities by possessing three forms in Shebin El-Kom,
Toukh Tanbisha, and in Sadat City.
Minufiya University has a wide activities in ecology and
Environmental studies in fields of Pasteur’s, natural
pest control, food processing, medical treatment, small enterprises
and adult education.
Minufia University offers educational and research services
beside public services to 6 areas in Nile Delta: Minufiya,
El- Gharbia, El- Beheria, Kafr El-Sheikh, El-Kaliubia, and
Minufiya University lies in the city of Shebin El-Kom ,
75 Kilometers away to the north from Cairo. Seven Faculties
and two Institute in Sadat City : Faculty of Physical Education,
Tourism and Hotels, Veterinary Medicine, Branch for Faculty
of Commerce, Branch for Faculty of Law, 2 Faculties of sport
Education one for girls and other for boys, Desert Environment
Research Institute, and Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
Research Institute (GEBRI). Faculty of Electronic Engineering
lies at Minufia City, and Faculty of Specific Education located
at Ashmoun City.
The academic year starts in September and ends by the end
of June;. The academic year is divided into two semesters.
Sadat City is a new city on Cairo – Alexandria Desert
Road (90 km north-west of Cairo, and 60 km west of Shebin
El-Kom), where the previous president of Egypt Mr. Anour El-Sadat
planed for Sadat City to become the Diplomatic Capital of
Egypt in 1970’s. But, after his death in 1981. The city
became one of the best desert new cities in Egypt. It is on
great area, modern architect, many gardens, low population
(about 100.000 person’s), and characterized by no air
pollution , and no noise. It is very good city for relax,
and scientific work.
Desert Environment Research Institute
It is established since three years in Sadat City with the
aim of undertaking comprehensive studies and researches in
the filed of desert environment (96% of the total area of
Egypt is Desert).
The research results are of great value to specialists concerned
with the environmental economic feasibility studies as well
as the studies regarding the best utilization of the various
desert resources and the production of develop kinds of animals
and agricultural plants that fit the desert environment.
Space Science and Renewable Energy Unit
The Space and Renewable Energy Unit established as unit in
the Desert Environment Research Institute with the start of
2002 in Sadat City, on the base, most of the research on Desert
Environment occurred by Remote Sensing, by artificial satellites.
Also, the Renewable Energy (Solar and Wind) are very rich
sources for the development of the remote area in the desert.
The cooperation of international interested institution is
being explored, where Menofia University is very encouragement
to grow this unit, to become the first developed center in
space science and renewable energy research in all the Egyptian
and Arabian universities, and the center will be awarded the
Diploma, M.Sc., and Ph.D. degrees in Space science and renewable
Building 32 meter radio telescope at Abu-Simbel in the South
of Egypt as part of the European VLBI network (EVN) to cover
the gab between the radio telescope in the western Europe
and the radio telescope at Hartebessthock in South Africans.
The cooperation of international interested institutions is
being explored for this important project.
1. Solar activity and the climatic change through the 21st
2. Testing of the Martian exploration instruments for 2003
and 2005 space trips in the western desert of Egypt, as it
is the direst area in the world, where are similarity between
the dry atmosphere of Sahara and the atmosphere of Mars, also
in the soil, and the dry villages.
3. Studding the eastern structure, due to meteoric impact
in the western desert of Egypt since 28 million years. Also,
studding the meteor chemistry, and the origin of life.
II. In the Field of Renewable Energy :
1. Pumping the underground water by photovoltaic system in
the remote desert area for cultivation and development.
2. Hydrogen production by photovoltaic system as clean renewable
energy for the future capital project at Nasser Lake in the
upper Egypt. The cooperation of International interested institutions
is being explored for this important project, where the solar
radiation input is more than 2500 kwh/m2/year in this area,
and the water of salinity 150-200 mmp.
3. Studding the air pollution and atmospheric turbidity from
solar radiation at different wave lengths by physical methods.
4. Developing a new solar radiation Atlas for Egypt (the
last one at 1991).
5. Developing a new “ Typical Solar Radiation year
for Egypt”, (where the last one since 1991).
III. In the field of desert Archaeology :
1. Studding the Egyptian pyramids, temples, and tombs orientations,
and its relation with the sun apparent daily and annual motion,
and how we can determine the age of these Archaeological building
from the astronomical methods.
2. Nabta region in the South of the western Desert of Egypt
and what means its stones, since more than 7000 years, is
it solar or stellar observatory?
3. Cambyes army mission in the western desert of Egypt. In
collaboration with desert archaeology institute, Italy.
1. Project title:
Solar Hydrogen Pilot Project At Nasser Lake In The South
2. Project Area : Solar Energy .
3. Background and Justification :
Nasser Lake in the South of Egypt is the second world’s
largest man-made lakes of length 500 km, and mean width about
6 km. It contains about 140 billion cubic meter from fresh
and renewable water of salinity from 150 to 200 ppm. The western
coast of the lake is empty flat desert, and the nominal annual
insulation is more than 2500 kWh/m2. This fact puts the lake,
in certain classification criteria, on top among the most
suitable areas world-wide for solar Hydrogen production.
Egypt is a part of North Africa, where is the greatest desert,
characterized by the highest solar energy potential in the
world. In the same time the European countries in need for
renewable, clean, and alternative energy than the fossil for
the next century.
Now there is a recent technologies for solar energy utilization,
specially that of solar cells and PV-systems. The best utilization
of the solar energy in the North of Africa is to convert it
to Hydrogen by water electrolyzing using DC electricity from
solar cells of PV-system. Where, Hydrogen will satisfy all
the requirement. It must be storable, transportable, clean,
inexhaustible; and a fuel for use in transport systems, homes
and industry. The distance between lake Nasser to the west
of Alexandria on the Mediterranean Sea is about 900 kilometers
into the western desert of Egypt. The distance pass through
flat empty desert without Geographical or Geological barriers.
Hydrogen will be delivered easily through the Mediterranean
Sea through pipe lines directly to many places in Europe.
4. Objective :
The objective of the suggested project is the design, installation,
and safe experimental operation of directly coupled 350 kW
concentrated photovoltaic-advanced electrolysis system with
compressed Hydrogen storage. The plant can be installed in
the South of Aswan – Sahara Area near the High Dam –
20 km from Aswan Center on the coast of Nasser lake. This
plant will be pilot project, and can be extended to become
large project for submitting Egypt and Europe by Hydrogen
as renewable, clean, safe energy for the next century.
5. Brief Description :
Solar Electric Generations
The photovoltaic power generators of 350 kW electric power,
proposed for the first stage, would consist of equal number
of modules of single-and polycrystalline silicon, thin film
and amorphous silicon, from different technologies, to test
their performance in realistic user conditions [1,2]. The
coordinate of the plant at Sahara area near the High Dam is
(latitude 23o 50/ N, longitude 32o50/E ).
For that four different angels of orientations 20, 25, 30
and 35 degrees, are proposed in this plant, in order to compare
wind effects, power gain, materials and complexity of modules
support structures and the cost of this structure in each
case. The modules supports are made of reinforced concrete
and steel which are available locally.
Two decentralized electrolyzers are used for hydrogen production.
Alkaline electolyzers of different advanced technologies should
be used to test their technologies in the most inhopitile
environment of the real desert, the most favorable place in
world for constructing large scale solar-hydrogen power planets.
Hydrogen storage system
The hydrogen produced is proposed to be consumed locally,
in the first stage. Thus, there is no need to store large
quantities of hydrogen for long time. The consuming equipment
would be :
a) Automobiles and pick-up trucks and other vechiles to be
used as site servicing equipment. Tanks and different hydride
metals are used to store the hydrogen gas in the vechiles.
b) Fuel cell plant of different technologies is proposed
to supply electricity at night instead of batteries.
c) There will be home appliances consuming hydrogen for many
purposes, in the houses of the people working on the project
The hydrogen is to be stored as a gas, in cylindrical tank
is connected to a refueling station on site to recharge the
vechiles with hydrogen. The hydrogen storage system includes
a compression station, purification, piping, etc.
Since one of major objectives of this plant is to test and
evaluate the technologies in real-user conditions, it is needless
to mention the required measuring devices, data acquisition
systems, hard and software controlling instruments. There
would represent a sizeable portion of the plant cost.
6. Concrete Output Of The Project:
Cooperation between some countries to develop solar hydrogen
energy system on an international scale is required.
This paper might be considered as an invitation to start
some work together, because there is no other option but to
exploit the Sahre reservoir of clean and inexhaustible sources
It is clear that Nasser Lake and the surrounding Sahara is
major source of solar hydrogen energy, that would supply the
energy needs of the countries in the region and Europe some
time in the next century (5,6). So, it is the right time,
if it is not late, to start working, seriously, for building
demonstration plant in the region testing and evaluation of
the whole system. This paper is an invitation for serious
steps that could be organized between interested institutions.
7. Budget Breakdown:
Cost estimation on solar hydrogen plants is usually decreasing
with time and the size of the plant. The existing plants,
are for demonstration and evaluation of the technologies,
which is still in development needed for large scale commercial
plants. Since these plants are still in the future, where
everything is changing, it is hard to come up with reliable
energy production costs. Bearing these difficulties in mind,
a rough estimation for the cost of this plant, in the middle
of the Sahara, is made. It is about 4 million Dollars, as
adopted from papers [3,4]. As follows:
PV arrays $ 2,000,000
DC / CD $ 90, 000
DC / AC $ 15,000
Electrolyzers $ 255,000
H2 Purification $ 30,000
H2 Compression $ 300,000
H2 Storage $ 300,000
Fuel cells $ 200,000
Infra structure, instruments for control $ 1,000,000
And data acquisition systems.
8. References :
1-M. A. Mosalam Shaltout, A. M. Mahrous, and A. Ghettas :
Photovoltaic performance under real out-door conditions of
hot desert climate mear Cairo, Renewable Energy vol. 6, pp.553-536
2- M. A. Mosalam Shaltout, and A. H. Hassan; Effect of the
environmental condition on the performance of solar cells
and photovoltaic panel in the desert climate, Proceeding of
the 13th European photovaltaic solar energy conference and
exhibition, 23-27 October, 1995, Nice, France, Vol. 1, pp.
3. L. Barra and D. Coinati; Energy cost analysis for H2-PV
power stations, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 18, p. 685 (1993).
4. C. J. Winter and M. Fuchs; Hysolar and Solae-Wasser stoff-Bayren,
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 16, p. 723 (1991).
5. M. A. Mosalam Shaltout; Solar Hydrogen in Egypt: As an
alternative renewable clean energy for the future, Proceedings
of the 10th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, Coca Beach,
Florida, USA, 20-24 June 1994, pp. 57-66, edited by D.L Block
and T. N. Veziroglu.
6. M. A. Mosalam Shaltout; Solar Hydrogen From Lake Nasser
for 21st Century in Egypt, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 23,
No. 4, PP. 233-238, (1998).
9. Project Team :
- Professor Mosalam SHALTOUT, (Principal Investigator)
Office (Mailing) Address: Desert
Environment Research Institute,
Minufiya University, El-Sadat City, Egypt.
Phone : +20-48-
602178 - +20-48- 603208
Fax : +20-48-
600404 and +20 –2- 4011298
Mobile Phone : +2-010-5156443