My dear colleagues and friends around all the World,

Please, starting from 1 May 2002 my new job and address as following :

Professor Mosalam SHALTOUT,

Head and Chairman of Space Science and Renewable Energy Research and Studies,

Desert Environment Research Institute,

Minufiya University, El- Sadat City, Egypt.

Tel. : + 2 ( 048 ) 603208 ; +2 ( 048 ) 602178

Fax : +2 ( 048 ) 600404

E-mail :

http : www. m-shaltout. com / m. shaltout

Minufiya University

Minufiya University has been established in 1976. The university activities started with 4 units : - Faculty of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Electronic Engineering and Faculty of Education. The number of students was 2000 students. Many Egyptian and Arab students have been graduated from Minufiya University. Languages of instruction Minufiya University are Arabic and English.

At the present, Minufiya University has been enlarged to include 24 faculties, institutes, and centers.

Agriculture, Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Science, Commerce, Education, Medicine, Home Economic, Arts, law, High Institute of Nursing, liver Institute, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI), Physical Education, Tourism and Hotels, Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Specific Education, and Desert Environment Research Institute, and two Faculties for Sport Education, ( one for girls and another one for boys).

Minufiya University has now more 70.000 undergraduate students and more than 5.000 postgraduate students.

Foreigners who are intending to study at the university have to send their application to the General Aliens Department, Ministry of Higher Education in Cairo. The University hostels provide accommodation for more than 6.000 students (males and females).

An experimental school has been attached to the Faculty of Education as a training laboratory.

Minufiya University has more than 2000 staff members and assistants and about 5000 technicians, administration and clerks.

Health care is provided to students, academic staff and personnel. Minufiya university gives a deep attention to agro - animal activities by possessing three forms in Shebin El-Kom, Toukh Tanbisha, and in Sadat City.

Minufiya University has a wide activities in ecology and Environmental studies in fields of Pasteur’s, natural pest control, food processing, medical treatment, small enterprises and adult education.

Minufia University offers educational and research services beside public services to 6 areas in Nile Delta: Minufiya, El- Gharbia, El- Beheria, Kafr El-Sheikh, El-Kaliubia, and Al- Sharkia.

Minufiya University lies in the city of Shebin El-Kom , 75 Kilometers away to the north from Cairo. Seven Faculties and two Institute in Sadat City : Faculty of Physical Education, Tourism and Hotels, Veterinary Medicine, Branch for Faculty of Commerce, Branch for Faculty of Law, 2 Faculties of sport Education one for girls and other for boys, Desert Environment Research Institute, and Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI). Faculty of Electronic Engineering lies at Minufia City, and Faculty of Specific Education located at Ashmoun City.

The academic year starts in September and ends by the end of June;. The academic year is divided into two semesters.

Sadat City

Sadat City is a new city on Cairo – Alexandria Desert Road (90 km north-west of Cairo, and 60 km west of Shebin El-Kom), where the previous president of Egypt Mr. Anour El-Sadat planed for Sadat City to become the Diplomatic Capital of Egypt in 1970’s. But, after his death in 1981. The city became one of the best desert new cities in Egypt. It is on great area, modern architect, many gardens, low population (about 100.000 person’s), and characterized by no air pollution , and no noise. It is very good city for relax, and scientific work.

Desert Environment Research Institute

It is established since three years in Sadat City with the aim of undertaking comprehensive studies and researches in the filed of desert environment (96% of the total area of Egypt is Desert).

The research results are of great value to specialists concerned with the environmental economic feasibility studies as well as the studies regarding the best utilization of the various desert resources and the production of develop kinds of animals and agricultural plants that fit the desert environment.

Space Science and Renewable Energy Unit

The Space and Renewable Energy Unit established as unit in the Desert Environment Research Institute with the start of 2002 in Sadat City, on the base, most of the research on Desert Environment occurred by Remote Sensing, by artificial satellites.

Also, the Renewable Energy (Solar and Wind) are very rich sources for the development of the remote area in the desert. The cooperation of international interested institution is being explored, where Menofia University is very encouragement to grow this unit, to become the first developed center in space science and renewable energy research in all the Egyptian and Arabian universities, and the center will be awarded the Diploma, M.Sc., and Ph.D. degrees in Space science and renewable energy.

Building 32 meter radio telescope at Abu-Simbel in the South of Egypt as part of the European VLBI network (EVN) to cover the gab between the radio telescope in the western Europe and the radio telescope at Hartebessthock in South Africans. The cooperation of international interested institutions is being explored for this important project.

1. Solar activity and the climatic change through the 21st century.

2. Testing of the Martian exploration instruments for 2003 and 2005 space trips in the western desert of Egypt, as it is the direst area in the world, where are similarity between the dry atmosphere of Sahara and the atmosphere of Mars, also in the soil, and the dry villages.

3. Studding the eastern structure, due to meteoric impact in the western desert of Egypt since 28 million years. Also, studding the meteor chemistry, and the origin of life.

II. In the Field of Renewable Energy :

1. Pumping the underground water by photovoltaic system in the remote desert area for cultivation and development.

2. Hydrogen production by photovoltaic system as clean renewable energy for the future capital project at Nasser Lake in the upper Egypt. The cooperation of International interested institutions is being explored for this important project, where the solar radiation input is more than 2500 kwh/m2/year in this area, and the water of salinity 150-200 mmp.

3. Studding the air pollution and atmospheric turbidity from solar radiation at different wave lengths by physical methods.

4. Developing a new solar radiation Atlas for Egypt (the last one at 1991).

5. Developing a new “ Typical Solar Radiation year for Egypt”, (where the last one since 1991).

III. In the field of desert Archaeology :

1. Studding the Egyptian pyramids, temples, and tombs orientations, and its relation with the sun apparent daily and annual motion, and how we can determine the age of these Archaeological building from the astronomical methods.

2. Nabta region in the South of the western Desert of Egypt and what means its stones, since more than 7000 years, is it solar or stellar observatory?
3. Cambyes army mission in the western desert of Egypt. In collaboration with desert archaeology institute, Italy.

1. Project title:

Solar Hydrogen Pilot Project At Nasser Lake In The South Of Egypt

2. Project Area : Solar Energy .

3. Background and Justification :

Nasser Lake in the South of Egypt is the second world’s largest man-made lakes of length 500 km, and mean width about 6 km. It contains about 140 billion cubic meter from fresh and renewable water of salinity from 150 to 200 ppm. The western coast of the lake is empty flat desert, and the nominal annual insulation is more than 2500 kWh/m2. This fact puts the lake, in certain classification criteria, on top among the most suitable areas world-wide for solar Hydrogen production.

Egypt is a part of North Africa, where is the greatest desert, characterized by the highest solar energy potential in the world. In the same time the European countries in need for renewable, clean, and alternative energy than the fossil for the next century.

Now there is a recent technologies for solar energy utilization, specially that of solar cells and PV-systems. The best utilization of the solar energy in the North of Africa is to convert it to Hydrogen by water electrolyzing using DC electricity from solar cells of PV-system. Where, Hydrogen will satisfy all the requirement. It must be storable, transportable, clean, inexhaustible; and a fuel for use in transport systems, homes and industry. The distance between lake Nasser to the west of Alexandria on the Mediterranean Sea is about 900 kilometers into the western desert of Egypt. The distance pass through flat empty desert without Geographical or Geological barriers. Hydrogen will be delivered easily through the Mediterranean Sea through pipe lines directly to many places in Europe.

4. Objective :

The objective of the suggested project is the design, installation, and safe experimental operation of directly coupled 350 kW concentrated photovoltaic-advanced electrolysis system with compressed Hydrogen storage. The plant can be installed in the South of Aswan – Sahara Area near the High Dam – 20 km from Aswan Center on the coast of Nasser lake. This plant will be pilot project, and can be extended to become large project for submitting Egypt and Europe by Hydrogen as renewable, clean, safe energy for the next century.

5. Brief Description :

Solar Electric Generations

The photovoltaic power generators of 350 kW electric power, proposed for the first stage, would consist of equal number of modules of single-and polycrystalline silicon, thin film and amorphous silicon, from different technologies, to test their performance in realistic user conditions [1,2]. The coordinate of the plant at Sahara area near the High Dam is (latitude 23o 50/ N, longitude 32o50/E ).

For that four different angels of orientations 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees, are proposed in this plant, in order to compare wind effects, power gain, materials and complexity of modules support structures and the cost of this structure in each case. The modules supports are made of reinforced concrete and steel which are available locally.

Two decentralized electrolyzers are used for hydrogen production. Alkaline electolyzers of different advanced technologies should be used to test their technologies in the most inhopitile environment of the real desert, the most favorable place in world for constructing large scale solar-hydrogen power planets.

Hydrogen storage system

The hydrogen produced is proposed to be consumed locally, in the first stage. Thus, there is no need to store large quantities of hydrogen for long time. The consuming equipment would be :

a) Automobiles and pick-up trucks and other vechiles to be used as site servicing equipment. Tanks and different hydride metals are used to store the hydrogen gas in the vechiles.

b) Fuel cell plant of different technologies is proposed to supply electricity at night instead of batteries.

c) There will be home appliances consuming hydrogen for many purposes, in the houses of the people working on the project and others.

The hydrogen is to be stored as a gas, in cylindrical tank is connected to a refueling station on site to recharge the vechiles with hydrogen. The hydrogen storage system includes a compression station, purification, piping, etc.

Since one of major objectives of this plant is to test and evaluate the technologies in real-user conditions, it is needless to mention the required measuring devices, data acquisition systems, hard and software controlling instruments. There would represent a sizeable portion of the plant cost.

6. Concrete Output Of The Project:

Cooperation between some countries to develop solar hydrogen energy system on an international scale is required.

This paper might be considered as an invitation to start some work together, because there is no other option but to exploit the Sahre reservoir of clean and inexhaustible sources of energy.

It is clear that Nasser Lake and the surrounding Sahara is major source of solar hydrogen energy, that would supply the energy needs of the countries in the region and Europe some time in the next century (5,6). So, it is the right time, if it is not late, to start working, seriously, for building demonstration plant in the region testing and evaluation of the whole system. This paper is an invitation for serious steps that could be organized between interested institutions.

7. Budget Breakdown:

Cost estimation on solar hydrogen plants is usually decreasing with time and the size of the plant. The existing plants, are for demonstration and evaluation of the technologies, which is still in development needed for large scale commercial plants. Since these plants are still in the future, where everything is changing, it is hard to come up with reliable energy production costs. Bearing these difficulties in mind, a rough estimation for the cost of this plant, in the middle of the Sahara, is made. It is about 4 million Dollars, as adopted from papers [3,4]. As follows:

PV arrays $ 2,000,000

DC / CD $ 90, 000

DC / AC $ 15,000

Electrolyzers $ 255,000

H2 Purification $ 30,000

H2 Compression $ 300,000

H2 Storage $ 300,000

Fuel cells $ 200,000

Infra structure, instruments for control $ 1,000,000

And data acquisition systems.

8. References :

1-M. A. Mosalam Shaltout, A. M. Mahrous, and A. Ghettas : Photovoltaic performance under real out-door conditions of hot desert climate mear Cairo, Renewable Energy vol. 6, pp.553-536 (1995).

2- M. A. Mosalam Shaltout, and A. H. Hassan; Effect of the environmental condition on the performance of solar cells and photovoltaic panel in the desert climate, Proceeding of the 13th European photovaltaic solar energy conference and exhibition, 23-27 October, 1995, Nice, France, Vol. 1, pp. 529-532.

3. L. Barra and D. Coinati; Energy cost analysis for H2-PV power stations, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 18, p. 685 (1993).

4. C. J. Winter and M. Fuchs; Hysolar and Solae-Wasser stoff-Bayren, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 16, p. 723 (1991).

5. M. A. Mosalam Shaltout; Solar Hydrogen in Egypt: As an alternative renewable clean energy for the future, Proceedings of the 10th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, Coca Beach, Florida, USA, 20-24 June 1994, pp. 57-66, edited by D.L Block and T. N. Veziroglu.

6. M. A. Mosalam Shaltout; Solar Hydrogen From Lake Nasser for 21st Century in Egypt, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 23, No. 4, PP. 233-238, (1998).

9. Project Team :

- Professor Mosalam SHALTOUT, (Principal Investigator)

Office (Mailing) Address: Desert Environment Research Institute,
Minufiya University, El-Sadat City, Egypt.

Phone : +20-48- 602178 - +20-48- 603208
Fax : +20-48- 600404 and +20 –2- 4011298
Mobile Phone : +2-010-5156443